You want to enjoy delicious mushrooms all year round? Then you should grow them yourself. We explain how you can grow shiitake, porcini, herb mushrooms and other popular varieties of mushrooms at home, and what to look out for.
Table of contents
- Mushroom culture: useful tips for beginners.
- Grow mushrooms: Ready culture
- Cultivation without a cultivation kit
- What types of mushrooms can be grown at home?
Mushroom culture: useful tips for beginners
Mushrooms are important sources of nutrients. They contain trace elements, provide the body with important vitamins and fiber. Their aroma can flavor any sauce and any dish. If you want to enhance your dishes with delicious mushrooms, you don’t need to spend hours searching in the forest or spend generously on them at the supermarket. Fortunately, mushrooms, like herbs, can be grown and harvested at home.
In this regard, there are several variants. You can find mushroom mycelium in the garden center. You can also buy a ready-made mushroom culture. Or you can opt for a ready-made mushroom kit.
Where at home can I grow mushrooms?
In the basement: edible mushrooms are fairly undemanding when it comes to location. They do not need sunlight and can also stand in the dark. The most important thing is that the humidity in the room is really high and that the mushrooms are protected from the wind. The cellar meets all the requirements and provides the best possible conditions for rapid growth.
In the garden shed: a garden shed with darkened windows is also well suited for this purpose.
In the weatherproof balcony cabinet: You can also grow mushrooms on the balcony. Since the preculture is very sensitive in the first weeks, you should start growing in October. The fruiting plants themselves are frost hardy and can be left outside.
Grow mushrooms: Ready Culture
Many beginners opt for a pre-culture kit. There, the mushrooms are already pre-cultivated in boxes. The mushroom myrtle is the substratum through-grown. The first mushrooms appear after only one month. After that, several harvests are possible. Yields can total from 1 to 3 kg for smaller cultivation boxes.
Cultivation without cultivation set
However, growing with mushroom spawn without a cultivation set is just as uncomplicated. All you need is a suitable substrate. Unlike other plants, mushrooms do not need a special substrate. However, they grow quickly even without soil. The most important thing is that the substrate is rich in nitrogen. Straw, tree trunks from freshly fallen trees and coffee grounds are best suited for this purpose.
Growing mushrooms with coffee grounds
Coffee grounds, which are already in use, are excellent for growing mushrooms. But not all coffee grounds are the same: it is best to use filer coffee. Coffee for espresso is little or not at all suitable for this purpose. Use only fresh coffee grounds, no more than two days old.
For the cultivation you need mushroom spawn. First fill a sealable plastic bag with coffee grounds, then add the mushroom myrtle. Close the plastic bag halfway to allow air to circulate. Then wait two to four weeks. If the coffee grounds turn white, then that is a sure sign that they are infused with mushroom myrtle.
Then you can put the coffee grounds into a small growing pot. After just a few days, the first mushroom caps will begin to appear. To encourage growth, you can water the coffee grounds regularly. It should be fresh to moderately moist.
Grow mushrooms on tree trunk
In the garden, freshly cut tree trunks (no more than 20 days old) provide the best possible growing conditions. Take a tree trunk from the deciduous tree with a diameter of at least 20 cm. If you cut the tree at sub-zero temperatures, then you should put the tree trunk in a bucket of water for a day. Drill holes with a diameter of 8 mm, about 7 cm deep into the trunk. You can then use inoculation sticks and put one such stick with fungal mycelium in each hole. In the first 45 days, the mushroom culture is very sensitive and needs frost protection. Therefore, it is recommended to place the tree stump either in a cool, unheated room, or, if grown in a greenhouse, wrap it with black plastic film.
What types of mushrooms can you grow at home?
Most edible mushrooms can be grown at home without any problems. Even more so – if the weather is around 15 degrees Celsius, mushrooms can grow all year round and give yields even in winter. The following types of mushrooms are easily grown at home:
- herb mushrooms
- Rose mushroom
- Golden mushroom
Growing shiitake mushrooms
Shiitake mushrooms originate from Asia, where they are widely distributed in the forests of southern parts of China. The mushrooms are very popular for their high vitamin B content and their specific taste. The cultivation is very simple. You only need inoculation plugs with mushroom myrtle, a tree trunk (oak) and a shady room where you can control the room temperature and humidity by ventilating and heating. Proceed as follows:
- Using a drill, drill several 1.5 cm deep holes 15 cm apart. Distribute the holes evenly over the tree trunk.
- You will need inoculation dowels with dimensions: 3 cm long and 1.5 cm wide.
- About 20 inoculation plugs are sufficient for inoculating a tree trunk with dimensions: 35 cm diameter and 1 meter length.
- Now hammer the inoculation dowels into the holes.
- Seal the holes with beeswax and the cut sides of the log with latex binder (if you have such binder at home).
- Place the log in a dark location (for example, basement, garden shed or greenhouse). Temperatures should not fall below 14° Celsius and rise above 22° Celsius.
Grow mushroom culture in straw
Mushrooms are true classics among mushrooms. They are perfect for growing at home. Proceed as follows:
- Fill a wooden box with straw flour. Add straw pellets.
- Now put beechwood sticks with mushroom spawn into the bag.
- Cover the mushroom culture with perforated frishhalte foil.
- Place the boxes in a location with room temperature 16° Celsius.
- Already after three weeks you can see that the straw flour is covered with a white foam. Then remove the foil.
- After another week, the first mushrooms appear. When they grow large enough, you can harvest them.
- The harvest period lasts up to four months, during which the mushrooms are harvested about three times.
Pre-growing oyster mushrooms from grain mushroom spawn.
If you want to grow oyster mushrooms at home, then you need grain mushroom spawn. Oyster mushrooms are true adaptors and can be grown not only on a log or in a straw ball, but also on banana leaves, hay, or even in a substract. Oyster mushrooms are indeed frost-resistant. But the mushroom culture needs winter protection from November, so that it can form fruiting heads throughout the year. So, the temperature should not fall below 16 ° Celsius. After the fungal spores grow through the substrate and the first mushrooms appear, a pause in growth follows. These pauses last between 7 and 14 days.
Special case herb mushrooms
The herb mushrooms belong to the hardy mushrooms. Even the mushroom culture is preferred at lower temperatures than usual. Indeed, the specifics of care is that the herb mushrooms need sunlight. So put them in an unheated, but bright room with temperatures between 10 ° and 17 ° Celsius. The mushroom culture should not be placed directly on the windowsill. An off-sun place proves to be optimal. Mushrooms will also feel comfortable in the basement or garage, as long as the rooms have windows.
Proceed with the cultivation as usual: Fill straw meal or coffee grounds into a growing tray and cover it with perforated cling film.
Since the herb mushrooms need very high humidity to form fruiting bodies, you should first cover the growing tray with cling film and then regularly water the substrate. Herbs
Special case porcini mushrooms
Unlike other types of mushrooms, porcini need a community of different plants to form fruiting bodies. Since this is a complicated system, cultivation at home is not possible.